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ForestEthics
ForestEthics
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Ethics in Forestry
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Table of Contents
Preface. I
Abstract III
Table of Contents. 1
First Dedication & acknowledgement 9
Second Dedication & acknowledgement 10
Chapter 0. 13
Prologue. 13
0.         Introductory Chapter. 17
0.1.      Introduction. 17
0.1.1.          Limiting the study to German speaking alphine regions of Europe, particulary Austria. 18
0.1.2.          Method and Procedure (Methodology) and suppositions of the work. 18
0.2.      Definitions. 25
0.2.1.          Ethic. 25
0.2.2.          Ecology. 26
0.2.2.1.             Human Ecology (Man - Environment) 29
0.2.2.1.1.           The co-creatureliness of man – He influences the Environment 30
0.2.2.2.             Nature. 31
0.2.2.2.1.           Woodland. 34
0.2.2.2.2.           Forest 35
0.2.2.2.3.           Forestry. 36
0.3.      Conclusion of the Introductory Chapter. 37
Chapter 1. 39
The Man and the creation of Forest 39
1.         Man and the creation of Forest – The history of man with and in the Woodland/Forest – An overview   39
1.1.      The History of Woodland/Forest in the active zones. 39
1.1.1.          The Evolution of Woodlands. 41
1.1.1.1.             The Woodland and Biodiversity. 42
1.1.1.2.             The Woodland as Natural landscape. 43
1.2.      The History of Man within the subject matter of Woodland/Commercial forest in the active zones  45
1.2.1.          The Evolution of Man. 45
1.2.1.1.             The Woodland/Commercial forest as Human habitat 45
1.3.      The Woodland/Commercial forest and Man in the active zones – A Historical Overview.. 51
1.3.1.          A Historical Outline. 52
1.3.1.1.             What keeps man alive (Wovon lebt der Mensch) (750 - 800) 52
1.3.1.2.             Woodland and Water. 52
1.3.1.3.             Forestry cover and Protective Forest 54
1.3.1.4.             The woodland reserves. 56
1.3.1.5.             The Forest Associations (1770-...) 57
1.3.2.          Woodlands as Culutral space. 57
1.3.2.1. Medieval Economic Growth (900-1350) 59
1.3.2.1.1.           Contours of Culture. 59
1.3.2.1.1.1.            Woodlands and Tree free areas (Glades) 59
1.3.2.1.2.           The early modern expansion (1350-1600) 60
1.3.2.1.2.1.            Forest destruction and Emission damages. 60
1.3.2.1.3.           Woodland und Commercial forest in the Cultural history. 62
1.3.2.1.3.1.            The history of Forest Charter, Forest Laws and Forest ownership. 62
1.3.2.1.3.1.1.             The era of Local Forest Administration. 62
1.3.2.1.3.1.2.             The large industrial economy and its Timber supply. 62
1.3.2.1.3.1.3.             Carbonization. 64
1.3.2.1.3.1.4.             The application of Wood in Mining and Metallurgy. 65
1.3.2.1.3.1.5.             The use of woods for Salt works. 66
1.3.2.1.3.1.6.             The use of woods in Glass works. 66
1.3.2.1.3.1.7.             Buring of ash. 67
1.3.2.1.3.1.8.             Wood furnace carbonisation for Pine oil, tar, pitch, and carbon black/soot production  68
1.3.2.1.3.1.9.             Resin usage. 68
1.3.2.1.4.           Ecological problems in cultural change. 68
1.3.2.1.4.1.            The concept of Forest in religion and Church history – A selective representation  71
1.3.2.1.4.1.1.             Mythology. 72
1.3.2.1.4.1.2.             Traditions and Folks beliefs. 75
1.3.2.1.4.1.3.             Sanctions against wilful destruction of trees and Forest crime. 78
1.3.2.1.4.2.            Woodland in an Industrialised society. 79
1.3.2.1.4.2.1.             How natural todays Woodland is?. 80
1.3.2.1.4.2.2.             Special Control modes (Spezielle Nutzungsformen) & Climate Protection. 81
1.3.2.1.4.2.2.1.    Afforestation of agricultural land. 82
1.4.      The Woodland and the Bio-diversity – Artificial Plant variety. 85
1.4.1.          Genetic Engineering in Forestry. 86
1.4.2.          Ecological awareness. 90
1.4.2.1.             The Nation and the ecological awareness. 93
1.4.2.2.             Nature conservation and its objectives in relation to Woodland/Commercial Forest 97
1.4.2.2.1.           Forest ecosystem... 100
1.4.2.2.2.           Protection of Nature versus Commercial forest?. 102
1.4.2.2.3.           Sustainable Forestry. 102
1.4.2.2.4.           Environmental Management System in the EU countries (Eco-Audit) 105
1.4.2.2.5.           Certification. 107
1.4.2.2.5.1.            Certificates. 109
1.4.2.2.6.           Biomass. 115
1.4.2.2.7.           Growth trends. 117
1.4.2.3.             Ecological crisis and its reason. 118
1.4.2.3.1.           Semi-natural Woodlands / Selection cutting - "Nature based selection forest". 120
1.4.2.3.2.           Agenda 21 - Rio 1992. 121
1.4.3.          Forest exploitation – Economic consciousness. 124
1.4.3.1.             Woodland as an economic element 124
1.4.3.2.             Ensuring Forest Management 125
1.4.3.3.             Socio-Economic question of cost- Awareness - Responsibility. 126
1.4.3.4.             Management methods – Existing solutions and Undesiraable developments. 128
1.4.3.4.1.           Deforested area (Over-exploitation) 128
1.4.3.4.2.           Removal of vegetation / Logging (Tree felling) 129
1.4.3.4.3.           Woodland Plantation (short term sustainability woodland) 130
1.4.3.4.4.           Harvesting Woodland (multifunctional Forestry) ("Naturalist" Forestry) 130
1.4.3.4.4.1.            Cable logging. 131
1.4.3.4.5.           Colony ("Pristine" Forest Management und "Natural" Forest Management) 131
1.4.3.4.6.           Protected Forest 131
1.5.      Forestry as a social variable (labour- and social questions) 133
1.5.1.          Social sense – Individual sense. 134
1.5.1.1.             The Employer. 136
1.5.1.2.             The Employee. 138
1.5.1.3.             The Labor relations. 140
1.5.2.          The "Inhabitants" of the Woodlands/Forests. 141
1.6.      The Woodland/Commercial Forest as an asset (Property) 145
1.6.1.          Forms ownership – Types of ownership. 147
1.6.1.1.             Primary ownership-The forest "belongs" primarily to human race. 148
1.6.1.2.             Appropriation and Responsibility – Social security. 149
1.6.1.3.             The Ownership theory of THOMAS and the (new) Scholasticism:Every matter has always been a destiny, which the man must discover – Giving priority to common good. 150
1.6.1.3.1.           Ius carpendi / rodendi commune populi (Allgemeines Klaubrecht des Volkes) 151
1.6.1.4.             State-owned Forests. 153
1.6.1.5.             Public-owned Forests. 156
1.6.1.6.             Privately owned Forests. 157
1.7.      Summary of the chapter. 159
Chapter 2. 161
The Creator and the Creation of Woodland. 161
2. The Creator and the Woodland – Church and Theology in the responsibility of Creation. 161
2.1.      Culture. 161
2.1.1.          Cultural "Evolution". 167
2.1.2.          Historico-cultural aspects regarding Woodland. 170
2.1.2.1.             Commercial Timberland. 171
2.1.2.2.             Protection Forest and Recreational Forest 172
2.1.2.3.             Significance of Woodlands. 172
2.1.2.4.             Welfare effects. 173
2.1.2.5.             Folk literature. 174
2.1.2.6.             Art 177
2.1.2.7.             Aesthetic effect of Woodlands. 180
2.1.3.          "The question of Generation". 181
2.1.3.1.             Whether the values of the woodlands are recognised by man?. 184
2.1.3.2.             It belongs to religion, humans can not merely view the Woodland economically. 187
2.2.      God and his Creation. 193
2.2.1.          The Creation as God’s revelation. 193
2.2.2.          Fundamentals of God’s revelation of Creation. 194
2.2.3.          "Evolution" in Creation. 196
2.2.4.          Aspects of Creation concept 198
2.2.5.          Man in Creation. 198
2.2.6.          The relationship between Man, Animal and Tree. 203
2.3.      Man and Creation. 207
2.3.1.          Special role/position of Man. 207
2.3.1.1.             The goodness of Creation. 207
2.3.1.2.             Responsibility of Man to Nature. 209
2.3.1.3.             Human Nature. 211
2.3.1.4.             The nature of trees (Biblical interpretation) 213
2.3.2.          Woodland in other religions. 215
2.3.2.1.             Judaism.. 215
2.3.2.2.             Islam.. 216
2.3.2.3.             Hinduism.. 217
2.3.2.4.             Buddhism.. 217
2.3.2.5.             Eastern Religions. 218
2.3.2.6.             Nature Worship. 219
2.3.3.          The Woodland in Christanity and Church. 221
2.3.3.1.             The Woodland in Bible. 222
2.3.3.1.1.           The "Image of Trees" in the Bible. 271
2.3.3.1.2.           Integrity of Creation. 274
2.3.3.1.2.1.            Responsibility for a certain place. 275
2.3.3.1.2.2.            Sabbath rest in favor of Creation. 276
2.3.3.1.2.3.            Preserving Creation. 277
2.3.3.1.3.           The Biblical Order of Rule to today’s Man. 278
2.3.3.1.3.1.            The Bible and today’s ecological issues. 279
2.3.3.1.3.2.            Rule does not denotes to exploit 280
2.3.3.2.             Ecclesiastical statements and documents for Woodland and Environment 280
2.3.3.2.1.           The "Preliminary work" of Church. 280
2.3.3.2.1.1.            The "Highest form" of Benedictine action in the responsibility of Woodland. 282
2.3.3.2.2.           "Rome" and the Woodland. 283
2.3.3.2.2.1.            The ecological crisis in the ethical context 284
2.3.3.2.3.           "Rome" and the Environment 286
2.3.3.2.3.1.            Evolution of Moral character 286
2.3.3.2.3.2.            The Evangelium of Life. 288
2.3.3.2.4.           The Church and Woodland. 289
2.3.3.2.5.           The Church and Environment 290
2.3.3.2.5.1.            Clerical Impulse. 290
2.3.3.2.5.2.            Pastoral deliberations. 290
2.3.3.2.5.3.            The German Bishops and Creation. 291
2.3.3.2.6.           Additional "Statements". 293
2.3.3.2.7.           Johannes Gualbertus, the patron of Foresters. 294
2.3.4.          The conscience. 295
2.4.      Occupation and Work with regard to the resonsiblility of environment 301
2.4.1.          Occupation. 301
2.4.1.1.             Worker. 302
2.4.1.2.             Legal deliberations to occupational ethic. 303
2.4.1.3.             Ethical obligations concerning continuing forest exploitations. 304
2.4.1.4.             Criteria of a code of honour (ethics) 304
2.4.1.5.             Objectives and secondary objectives of an ethical code of honour. 305
2.4.1.6.             Worst side effects of ecthical codes of honour. 306
2.4.1.7.             Need of ethical code of honour. 306
2.4.1.8.             Codes, Public esteem and professional pride. 306
2.4.1.9.             Wilderness (Nature) 307
2.4.2.          Codes. 308
2.4.2.1.             Principles for foresters. 308
2.4.2.2.             Ethical Code of Honour of the members of American Society of Foresters. 309
2.4.2.3.             Ethical Code of Honour of the Association of Consultant Foresterter. 310
2.4.2.4.             Ethical Code of Honour for Government services. 313
2.4.2.5.             Research Ethics Code of Honour of United States for the Department for Agriculture and Agricultural Research  314
2.4.2.6.             Expandability. 314
2.4.2.7.             Countries ethic canon. 315
2.4.2.8.             Observations. 316
2.4.3.          Work as participating in the act of Creation. 316
2.4.4.          Work. 319
2.4.4.1.             The value of human activity in Forestry. 319
2.4.4.2.             Specific guiding maxims for a eco-social market economy. 322
2.5.      Chater summary. 327
2.5.1. Brief overview of the Third Chapter 329
Chapter 3. 331
Ethical conclusions. 331
3.         Forestry "eco-social" ethic – a to be on secondment principle?. 331
3.1.      The existing term"Mandate". 333
3.1.1.          The meaning of the term "Mandate". 333
3.1.2.          With reference to the use of the term "Mandate" and its contents. 334
3.1.3.          With reference to the term "Administration". 336
3.2.      Widening of "mandatarischen understandings". 339
3.2.1.          Meaning of the term "to be on secondment principle". 339
3.3.      Principle. 341
3.3.1.          With reference to the existing principle of Social Doctrine. 342
3.3.1.1.             Charater principle (Individual principle / Personal principle) 343
3.3.1.2.             Principle of Solidarity (Solidarism) 344
3.3.1.3.             Principle of Subsidiarity. 344
3.3.1.4.             Principle of Common good. 346
3.3.1.5.             Necessary addendum to be on secondment principle in the existing principles. 347
3.3.2.          Definition of the term "To be on secondment" as principle. 348
3.3.3.          "To be on secondment" as Principle. 350
3.4.      With reference to the existing proposals for action. 357
3.5.      Final conclusion. 365
3.6.      Epilogue. 375
4.         Index. 377
4.1. Index of Abbrevations. 377
4.1.1.          Special characters. 377
4.1.2.          General Abbreviations. 378
4.1.3.          Abbrevations of Bible scriptures. 386
4.2.      References. 389
4.2.1.          Sources. 389
4.2.1.1.             Source material 390
4.2.1.2.             The source text of Popes and Second Vatican Council 391
4.2.1.3.             Miscellaneous Doctrinal and Clerical Source Text 393
4.2.1.3.1.           The texts of German Bischops‘ Conference. 393
4.2.1.3.1.1.            The German Bishops. 393
4.2.1.3.1.2.            Statements of the Holy Apostolidc excellence. 394
4.2.1.3.1.3.            Voices of the World Church. 394
4.2.1.3.1.4.            The Chairman of the German Bishop’s Conference. 394
4.2.1.3.1.5.            Aids. 395
4.2.1.3.1.6.            Common texts. 395
4.2.1.3.2.           Other Clerical texts. 395
4.2.1.4.             Other Source texts. 397
4.2.1.4.1.           Legal texts and Texts with Legislative Acts. 397
4.2.1.4.2.           Statistics and Texts of Statistics character 397
4.2.1.4.3.           Collected Works. 398
4.3.      Scientific Aids. 399
4.4.      Secondary Literature. 403
4.5.      Image Index. 429
Epilogue of Prälat em. O. Univ.-Prof. DDr. Rudolf Weiler. 431
Forest sites overview in the Bible. 437
© by Author of the work: Guido H. Hangartner.


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